Look at this figure. Study it. Memorize it.
Now, take out a blank sheet of paper, turn your screen away, and draw the figure from memory.
Return to your screen.
Did you draw it accurately?
For more than a decade, I’ve given my classes this test, and I’ve yet to have a single student be replicate this picture from memory.
Why does this simple figure baffle us so?
In Western culture, we are taught to recognize three-dimensional projections on paper as real object replicas.
In all actuality, this drawing when taken in two-dimensional pieces is only three circles, six horizontal lines, three diagonals and one vertical line.
But when we see this figure through our Western lens, our brains start doing mental gymnastics, trying to interpret a two-dimensional figure as a three-dimensional one.
This happens with other like-figures. M. C. Escher’s infinite staircase based on Penrose Stairs, for instance.
Or the triangle of Penrose.
Because we have been trained and socialized to see three-dimensionality on paper, we have a much harder time replicating these impossible figures.
Absence of Three-dimensional Conditioning
Zambian children with no academic education were presented with the same exercise by J. B. Deregowski, author of Illusions, Patterns, and Pictures.
How did they do?
You probably guessed that they were much more successful at reproducing the figure above.
However, if you asked the same students to give you directions using a two-dimensional map, more than likely, they’d be unable to transpose the map against reality’s three-dimensional surroundings.
Because they weren’t taught to see three-dimensional figures on paper. Three-dimensionality is not important to their culture, thus, to them, there is no optical illusion.
It’s that simple.
Right angles are another example of differing cultural perceptions.
People who live in traditional societies with arched doorways, arched ceilings, round huts are known to have a “circular culture.”
They are not able to perceive 90° angles, because right angles don’t appear in nature. They don’t exist there, so they don’t exist in the architecture or elsewhere in these cultures.
The color research we’ve talked about over the past couple weeks demonstrates that our perception of the world through our senses is influenced by cultural conditioning.
For instance, we mentioned that Russian culture differentiates between dark blue and light blue with language, defining them as totally different colors.
The British, on the other hand, don’t define them as two colors, but as two shades of one color.
Brit and Russian optics have the same functionality.
But, for some cultural reason, the distinction between light and dark blue isn’t of great importance to the Brits, while it is to Russians, according to their language.
Why is that?
Next week, we’ll talk more about how our visual framework influences our interpretation of reality.