The Vatican in Rome. The Great Mosque of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Western Wall in Jerusalem. The Golden Temple in India.
Everywhere you travel, you’re likely to find a religious site or house of worship.
Moreover, you’re likely to encounter the values and norms of that predominant religion, demonstrated in various ways.
Whether it’s the closure of shops on Fridays, Saturdays, or Sundays, or the style of clothing worn, religion influences both the visual landscape and the society at large.
Despite the best efforts from some atheistic governments to destroy religion, belief has remained alive and well in the hearts and minds of many.
One example of this is in Albania.
Albania Cracks Down
Albanian Dictator Envers Hoxa tried to forcefully remove religion, forbidding rituals, destroying churches, and banning religious symbols.
I, myself, visited Albania as a journalist after Hoxa’s regime fell.
While there, I happened upon a church that the regime had converted into a “house of culture” in the mountains bordering Yugoslavia.
Someone had gone through and overturned the tombstones, but you could still see crosses littered in the stone.
But what really astounded me were the professions of faith written inside the church.
Culture and religion are so inextricably intertwined that not even a ruthless dictator could kill their spirit.
Religion is something acquired during primary socialization; it is as intimately part of us as language or diet.
Whether or not a person has faith or considers themselves religious, some of their behaviors, norms, and values are inevitably still grounded in the predominant religion of their society, regardless of secularism. Even secular societies may still celebrate Easter and Christmas.
In effect, religion influences everything, from art and history to government and education.
Clash of Civilizations
Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington used religion as a major criterion when identifying the civilizations in his landmark book, Clash of Civilizations.
He looked at Christian, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, Orthodox, and Sinic civilizations (the East Asian cultural sphere).
Although GLOBE research divided 59 countries into cultural dimensions, none of which were religious, they received similar results to Huntington, which demonstrates how the behaviors, values, and norms of a culture are defined by religion.
8 in 10 people identify with a religious group, according to PEW forum.
Our societal personalities, traditions, lifestyles, and perspectives are deeply rooted in religion.
In this way, throughout history, societal rules and regulations have been dependent upon religion to help keep society in line. With religion as a driving factor, these rules are not simply being imposed by Man, but rather by the divine.
Next week, we’ll take a look at some research analyzing the interaction between culture and religion.
God is omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient!