During the 1994 World Cup, Heineken took center stage…and not in a good way.
In a bid of inclusion, Heineken printed the flag of every country participating in the Cup on its beer bottle.
Unfortunately, this included the flag of Saudi Arabia, which holds a holy creed, “There is no god but the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of the God.”
Islam, of course, forbids alcohol, so the blunder led to major hostilities in the Muslim world.
Heineken was forced to recall and discontinue this promotion, leading to loss of revenue and a bruised public image.
This is one example of what can happen when a business does not account for religious cultural norms.
Personal Faith Versus Cultural Behaviors
Religion influences both individuals and entire cultures.
Individual behavior is impacted by personal belief, while cultural behavior is often impacted by religious practices and norms.
A Christian attends mass every Sunday.
A Muslim prays in the direction of Mecca five times a day.
A Jew dons a Kipa.
All of these are religious behaviors based on individual convictions. That is, they may not impact an entire society or culture.
So, what types of behaviors do influence entire cultures?
One might differentiate between a cultural behavior and a personal one by identifying whether or not religious norms and values impact even non-believers..
Christmas & Easter
One glaring example of this is religious holidays.
Christmas and Easter are holidays that have become ingrained in Western culture; even those who are not of Christian faith celebrate said holidays.
In such cultures, holiday rituals – like decorating a Christmas tree, exchanging gifts, or even attending church – are often observed by those who do not practice religion.
Despite embracing these holiday rituals which are grounded in religion, those same celebrants may not necessarily routinely attend mass or celebrate any other elements of Christianity.
Particularly in Europe, attending church is often a personal conviction, rather than a cultural one.
Visit the South in the U.S., and you might view mass attendance differently.
In some states or regions, going to church is a cultural expectation. It can improve both your social life, your professional life, and even your political life.
In this way, religious behavior is a cultural element in the South, meaning it is conditioned by the culture rather than by religion itself.
Why Must You Know This Distinction
When living and working in a foreign culture, this distinction between religious individual behavior and religious cultural behavior is an important one.
Behaviors based in personal belief can be disregarded without major repercussions; but those based in cultural belief simply cannot.
Preparing to accept, adapt, and adopt pervasive religious cultural beliefs is an important step in cultural integration.