Language is culture. Food is culture. Customs are culture.
They are all taught. They are all shaped and communicated across generations through group orientation and primary socialization.
In the book, Not By Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution, authors Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd explain that some scientists argue that culture and human behavior cannot be tied to evolutionary theory and biology, quoting the concept of nature versus nurture.
Culture is something created via nurture, while biology is formed by nature.
An individual’s concept of time, her values and customs, her language – all of this is formed by the environment in which she grows up.
It is nurtured.
An individual’s eye color, his height, any genetic disease he may have – all of this is formed by genes.
It is the result of nature.
Considering this, many argue that evolutionary theory does not come into play in regards to learned behaviors that are shaped by the environment.
As we’ve discussed in many blog posts, cultural behaviors – and most other human behavior – is learned; therefore, the argument is that biology has little to do with creating it.
But Richerson and Boyd suggest that this is not the case, due to the symbiotic nature of genes and their environment.
Genes & the Environment Interact
Genes are not blueprints specifying an organism’s final draft.
Instead, the genetic information stored in an organism interacts with the environment around it while the organism is developing.
As Richerson and Boyd describe it:
“Genes are like a recipe, but one in which the ingredients, cooking temperature, and so on are set by the environment.”
And like any recipe, the traits of the organism will vary based on the differences in the environment.
Some traits are more affected by environment than others.
For instance, most humans develop two ears, despite the environment they’ve grown in, but depending on their nutritional environment during youth, they can develop different growth and health outcomes into adulthood.
Environmental differences can also cause differing behaviors in organisms that are genetically the same.
In such circumstances, the environment is the direct cause of different traits and behaviors.
And because culture is both a part of the environment and a reaction to it, while genes are the evolutionary response to past environments, neither can be removed from the equation.
They are symbiotic.
We’ll take a closer look at the degree to which genes and culture influence human behavior next week.