We’ve been talking about the locus of control over the past few weeks.
Specifically, we’ve discussed the external locus – believing outcomes are determined by environmental factors – and the internal locus – believing fate is in our hands.
Regardless of whether someone has an external or internal locus, each tries to control their fate but in different ways and to varying degrees.
They do so by primary or secondary control efforts, the first of which is active, and the second of which is passive.
Let’s take a look at how these active/passive traits unfold in the workplace.
Those from individualist cultures often demonstrate an internal locus of control.
Individualists believe they control their own fate.
Being as such, they demonstrate active primary control.
Primary control is a trait found in those who directly intervene in affairs, in order to command control over his/her environment or standing.
For instance, Sally wants a promotion, so Sally does whatever she can to get what she wants. She works late hours, beats deadlines, invests time into learning new skills, meets and exceeds expectations. She may even try to grease the wheels with superiors and use her networking skills to expand her reach.
Sally doesn’t just wait for the job to fall into her lap. She believes success comes with work, and that if she demonstrates primary control over her environment, she will achieve her end goal.
Sally uses primary control to command her fate.
Being that those with an external locus – most often from collectivist cultures – do not believe they control their fate, you might think they don’t try to at all.
But they do. Passively.
Secondary control is a trait found in those who align themselves with individuals or groups with established power.
Collectivists prefer secondary control, as their cultural values lean hard on avoiding conflict and the submission of personal control.
For instance, Dan wants to be well-regarded within the company. His colleague, Steve, is already well-regarded. Steve is also part of The Elite, an exceptional group within the company.
So, what does Dan do to get a leg-up? Dan befriends Steve. He works on becoming a member of The Elite. In doing so, he is molding relationships and changing the way higher-ups and colleagues regard him within the company.
Although the individual isn’t as active as Sally in controlling his fate, he is still trying to command passive control by building his image and the right relationships that might aid or change his environment.
Whether someone demonstrates primary or secondary control is largely based on the culture within which they live. But both types of control are seen in all cultures.