Cutting in a queue.
Breastfeeding in public.
These are folkways and mores – both social norms that aren’t accompanied by powerful consequences.
If you did either of these things in a culture that doesn’t accept it, someone might give you is a dirty look or, at worst, you might be ostracized. But, it’s unlikely that you’ll suffer punishment for violating either of these norm types.
Laws, on the other hand, are the very definition of social norms that cannot be crossed without punishment: they define what is right versus what is illegal.
Laws are social norms, formally written and enforced by the state. They distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable human behavior in a society, and they also define the sentencing process and punishments for these behaviors.
Any given culture or nation normally has a legislative branch that creates the laws. They are the social norm directors in this respect.
Police and other law enforcement officials crack down on those who offend these laws. They are the social norm enforcers.
Judges, juries, and the courts then lay down the law, correcting those offenders. They are the social norm punishers.
Treating infractions of legal norms with imprisonment and fines pressures members of a society to comply with and conform to the accepted norms.
Taboos -> Laws
Many taboos become law. For instance, in Muslim countries, it is taboo for Mohammed to be depicted in illustrations, and it is also taboo for women to drive. These taboos then may cross into written law, either directly or indirectly.
In Saudi Arabia, for instance, although there is no written law against female drivers, locally issued licenses are required for driving, and they aren’t issued to women. This makes female driving illegal in effect, which corresponds with the social taboo.
Some American examples of taboos crossing into law have to do with the policing of dress code. Believe it or not, in 2014, a saggy pants ban was passed in Florida, and other cities followed suit. Towns in Texas, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and New York also banned women from wearing shorts in the 30s and 40s.
Mores and folkways, which can be offensive to some, do not often cross this threshold into law.
For instance, public breastfeeding. In America, the social nudity mores might cause some to cringe when a woman breastfeeds in public; however, it’s not illegal to do so (with the exception of these states) and many women do.
Along with the other three social norm types, laws are the most restrictive and the most effective in defining a culture’s conformity. Without conformity of some kind, culture would not exist.