What does “well-being” mean to you?
Back in 1984, the World Health Organization defined health and well-being as follows:
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.”
This universal definition of well-being differs from subjective well-being, which is how one evaluates one’s own quality of life, how one feels in it, and how one feels they function in it.
Research and literature surrounding subjective well-being focus on happiness, positive affect, and life satisfaction.
Social well-being is more in tune with social behaviors: how one interacts with social institutions and mores, how he/she interacts with others, and how others react to him/her.
Considering these differences, this study comparing well-being constructs between German and Chinese students looked at social support as an indicator of social well-being, and happiness and satisfaction with life as indicators of subjective well-being.
It can be assumed that the definitions of the above terms might differ between these two groups, based on their differing cultures, as might the objectives to accomplish each.
Via focus groups and questionnaires, the study assessed perceived social support through rated statements like:
- “I experience a lot of understanding and security from others.”
- “If necessary, I can easily borrow something I might need from neighbors or friends.”
- “I have friends and family who will simply just hug me.”
Similarly, satisfaction was measured through statements like:
- “The conditions of my life are excellent.”
- “In most ways, my life is close to my ideal.”
- “I am satisfied with my life.”
And, lastly, happiness was measured via statements like:
- “Some people are generally happy. They enjoy life regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything.”
- “Some people are generally not very happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be.”
Both groups defined happiness criteria as including social contacts, positive emotions, and quality of life. Where the two countries differed was in social contact.
Social contact was the most frequently mentioned aspect in China and the least in Germany.
Another interesting aspect of the way each group viewed happiness was in the angle they took.
The Chinese groups saw happiness as pursuing a dream/goal and/or seeing it fulfilled, while the German groups saw two types of happiness: uncontrollable (which is designed by luck or fate, for instance) and controllable (as in achieving something). They also specified that happiness is subjective and brief.
Both groups noted different kinds of satisfaction.
First, an individual realistic standard; second, an ideal standard that’s changeable.
Lastly, they mentioned one’s perception of current satisfaction.
Quality of life was seen by both groups as a significant factor of life satisfaction, but the Chinese students focused on good living conditions (like high salary and economic conditions), while the German students focused on basic needs fulfillment (a home and food, etc.).
The researchers concluded that these differences may be based on the economic focuses of the two countries.
The Chinese groups saw contentment with one’s situation and a positive attitude about life as major contributing factors to life satisfaction, while the German students noted that satisfaction can come with comparing one’s current situation with the social norm or an individual standard.
Perceived Social Support
Chinese students focused on societal support, like charities, companies, and government policies, when discussing sources of perceived social support, while German students focused more on direct social networks.
German students mentioned financial and material support more frequently than their Chinese counterparts.
Both groups mentioned emotional support, while only the Chinese groups talked about “asking for help” indirectly, such as by posting on social media to gain empathy.
This study shows that though the themes of well-being may be universal, the contributing factors to well-being differ across cultures, often depending on cultural values, perspectives, and expectations.