We’ve all heard of “right-brain” and “left-brain” thinkers.
Left-brain thinkers are thought to be more logical and mathematical, while right-brain thinkers tend to lean emotional and artistic.
But are there any links between the way our brains function and our cultures?
We’ve talked a lot about gene-culture coevolution over these past few weeks.
In short, the theory suggests that genetics and culture are interconnected.
This brain imaging study about visual perceptual tasks seems to substantiate that theory.
Individualist vs. Collective
Psychological research has shown that individualist and collective values are demonstrated in an individual’s view of objects in relation to their context.
Americans, valuing individuality, tend to view the two as independent from each other.
East Asian cultures, which value the collective, view objects as contextually interdependent.
These differences have been shown to impact perception and memory by behavioral scientists.
The Study: How Our Brains Work
A study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology took a look at whether these cultural tendencies can be measured in brain activity patterns.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from a group of 20 participants – 10 from East Asia, 10 from the U.S. – McGovern Institute for Brain Research Professor John Gabrieli and his team examined participants’ mental operations.
Participants were asked to compare a sequence of images, and their mental operations were mapped via blood flow changes in the brain.
The images were lines within squares.
Participants were asked to compare each image with the previous image, making judgments based on relative judgments of interdependent objects or absolute judgments of individual objects without context.
For instance, some questions asked whether the lines were proportional to the squares, regardless of size (interdependent); others asked whether the lines were the same length as each other, regardless of the squares (independent of context).
The Results: Confirmed
While the simplicity of the task resulted in no differences in accuracy between the groups, brain activation patterns did differ.
Relative judgments, which have been shown to be harder for Americans, stimulated the brain regions dedicated to mental tasks that demand attention.
These regions were less active for absolute judgments.
As you might guess, the results for the East Asian group were the opposite, with brain activity becoming more active for absolute judgments and less for relative.
The paper’s lead author, Trey Hedden, said of the study:
“We were surprised at the magnitude of the difference between the two cultural groups, and also at how widespread the engagement of the brain’s attention system became when making judgments outside the cultural comfort zone.”
Even more interesting, questionnaires had been distributed prior to the exam to see how closely each individual identified with their culture, using questions regarding values and norms.
Those individuals who identified more intimately with their culture’s values showed a stronger reactive pattern of brain activity relative to their culture.
This study suggests that our culture – and how closely we individually identify with our culture – can influence the way our minds work.